Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security

Session

Tarteaucitron

Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

atid

Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months

atuserid

Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months

atidvisitor

Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inrae.fr or by post at :

INRAE

24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo TULIP Nouveau bandeau tutelles EN

Home

Modularity and predicted functions of the global sponge-microbiome network

Modularity and predicted functions of the global sponge-microbiome network
© Amanderson
Defining the organization of networks of interaction between species and revealing the processes at the origin of their assembly is fundamental to understand biodiversity, the stability of communities and the functioning of ecosystems. This is the challenge tackled by researchers at the Station of Theoretical and Experimental Ecology of Moulis (UMR CNRS / UPS). They presented the assembly network of the marine sponge microbiome in an article published in Nature Communications.

Marine sponges host complex communities of microorganisms that contribute to their health and survival, yet the mechanisms behind microbiome assembly are largely unknown. The authors of this article present the global marine sponge–microbiome network, containing over 150 sponge hosts, and almost 2 million bacterial associates, and revealed a modular organisation in both community structure and function. They show that modules are linked by a few sponge species that share microbes with other species all around the world.

What is microbiome?

A community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the sum of microorganisms living in sponges. Most of these microorganisms establish symbiotic interactions with their hosts.

This is somehow expected for tight associations such as symbioses: a strong microbial community differentiation across host species. Hosts within a given module have a set of characteristic functions given by their symbionts, that differ across modules.

The authors then tried to answer the following question: What are the drivers of such modularity? As expected, host type (i.e. modules contain sponges with very different lifestyles) and sponge phylogeny (i.e. hosts are more phylogenetically related within a module than across modules) were key predictors for modularity. What challenges the current paradigm is that abiotic conditions of the environment played a negligible role. For example, sponges inhabiting a given marine ecoregion do not share more symbionts among them than with hosts from other ecoregions.

These findings suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes are at play in host-microbe network assembly. On the basis of this specific example, authors predict that mechanisms behind microbiome assembly should consistent across multicellular hosts throughout the tree of life.

See also

Miguel Lurgi, Torsten Thomas, Bernd Wemheuer, Nicole S. Webster & Jose M. Montoya. Modularity and predicted functions of the global sponge-microbiome network.Nature Communications (2019) 10:992 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08925-4 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications