2013 Research highlights

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High throughput sequencing technologies are being applied to an increasing number of model species with a high-quality reference genome. The application and analyses of whole-genome sequence data in non-model species with no prior genomic information are currently under way. Recent sequencing technologies provide new opportunities for gathering genomic data in natural populations, laying the empirical foundation for future research in the field of conservation and population genomics. Here we present the case study of the Bornean elephant, which is the most endangered subspecies of Asian elephant and exhibits very low genetic diversity...
olives (JP ROGER)
The location and timing of domestication of the olive tree, a key crop in Early Mediterranean societies, remain hotly debated. Here, reseachers unravel the history of wild olives (oleasters), and then infer the primary origins of the domesticated olive.
Spores de champignon
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations are ancient and widespread plant symbioses playing a central role in most plant ecosystems, both by improving soil nutrient uptake and by contributing to protection against fungal pathogens.
Mort cellulaire
One of the most efficient plant resistance reactions to pathogen attack is the hypersensitive response, a form of programmed cell death at infection sites. The Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of hypersensitive cell death responses. Here we show that MIEL1 (MYB30-Interacting E3 Ligase1), an Arabidopsis RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with and ubiquitinates MYB30, leads to MYB30 proteasomal degradation and downregulation of its transcriptional activity...
Feuille A.Thaliana
During the evolution of plant-pathogen interactions, plants have evolved the capability to defend themselves from pathogen infection by different overlapping mechanisms. Disease resistance is constituted by an elaborate, multilayered system of defense. Among these responses, quantitative resistance is a prevalent form of resistance in crops and natural plant populations, for which the genetic and molecular bases remain largely unknown.Thus, identification of the genes underlying quantitative resistance constitutes a major challenge in plant breeding and evolutionary biology, and might have enormous practical implications for human health by increasing crop yield and quality.
Soil bacteria known as rhizobia are able to establish an endosymbiosis with legumes that takes place in neoformed nodules in which intracellularly hosted bacteria fix nitrogen. Intracellular accommodation that facilitates nutrient exchange between the two partners and protects bacteria from plant defense reactions has been a major evolutionary step towards mutualism. Yet the forces that drove the selection of the late event of intracellular infection during rhizobium evolution are unknown.
Aphanomyces euteiches
N-acetylglucosamine-based saccharides (chitosaccharides) are components of microbial cell walls and act as molecular signals during host-microbe interactions. In the legume plant Medicago truncatula, the perception of lipochitooligosaccharide signals produced by symbiotic rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi involves the Nod Factor Perception (NFP) lysin motif receptor-like protein and leads to the activation of the so-called common symbiotic pathway. In rice and Arabidopsis, lysin motif receptors are involved in the perception of chitooligosaccharides released by pathogenic fungi, resulting in the activation of plant immunity.
Parasite diversity on remote oceanic archipelagos is determined by the number and timing of colonizations, and in-situ diversification rate. In this study we compare intra-archipelago diversity of two hemosporidian parasite genera, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon, infecting birds of the Mascarene archipelago. Despite the generally higher vagility of Plasmodium parasites, we report a much lower diversity of Plasmodium cytochrome-b haplotypes in the archipelago compared to Leucocytozoon.
modélisation protéine
While chitooligosaccharides (COs) derived from fungal chitin are potent elicitors of defense reactions, structurally related signals produced by certain bacteria and fungi, called lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), play important roles in the establishment of symbioses with plants. Understanding how plants distinguish between friend and foe through the perception of these signals is a major challenge.
Understanding the ability of species to shift their distribution ranges in response to climate change is crucial for conservation biologists and resources managers. Although freshwater ecosystems include some of the most imperilled fauna worldwide, such range shifts have been poorly documented in streams and rivers and have never been compared to the current velocity of climate change. Based on national monitoring data, we examined the distributional changes of 32 stream species in France and quantified potential time lags in species responses, providing a unique opportunity to analyse range shifts over recent decades of warming in freshwater environments.

Modification date: 07 June 2023 | Publication date: 10 December 2014 | By: G. Esteve